Comparing with the modern era in women and gender,the status of women and the understanding of gender relations in the Late imperial period has some differences.In the Ming and Qing dynasties,Confucian gender ideology was very popular in the society at that time(KO,144-148).This kind of ideology had occupied the main social ideology in the aspect of women and gender.There was the principles for women to obey,which was called thrice following.That is to say,the status of women were very low in the Late Imperial period.The female was treated as the accessory of male.The thrice following means that the female should follow her father,husband,son in different periods of time in her life.
From the perspective of the marriage of the Ming and Qing dynasties woman,whether women marry early,many aspects,such as the divorce of women and widow remarriage,society still surrounded by the atmosphere of female subordination,women for their own marriage still do not have the right to free choice,in many cases,the women'marriage is still controlled by the parents or family,or as a commodity to exchange for interests(Chris,2-19).
In the Ming and Qing dynasties,the woman has been attached to the bride's family parents living before not to marry,don't choose their own life and the rights of their marriage,they are at home is like a handmaiden of the ancient aristocratic family,can be arbitrarily used to dominate,the restriction of the parents in the marital autonomy(KO,144-176).
In the Ming and Qing dynasties,the oppression of freedom of women in their life and freedom of marriage reached unprecedented levels of cruelty.When a woman becomes a woman,her own right of domination is transferred to the husband's family and becomes her husband's private property.And the husband's ownership of his wife was protected by social law at the time.
Of course,these phenomena are caused by various reasons.On the one hand,because Chinese society was still in feudal society at that time,people were severely restricted by feudal rule,and the rights of women were not allowed to be the same as men.On the other hand,influenced by the bondage of feudal ideas and,in the society of human is the idea of"roles"controls,both in terms of man,or from the point of female itself,all of them don't have any respond to criticism and resistance,so that the woman's own rights can not get the corresponding support,the status of women cannot be improved,can only be myself always in a passive position(Chris,2-19).In modern society,the status of women have improved a lot.On the one hand,more and more women start to take part in the social issues.According to the relative research,more and more women have the opportunity to get the enough education.Meanwhile,many women take various jobs in their life.Women have more rights in the modern society.On the other hand,more and more women realize that the equality of gender is important for them.For this reason,many women choose to fight for the rights of the women.They have better understanding of the relationship between the gender and the rights.
In reality,in the Late Imperial period,women both resisted and reinforced traditional gender norms.
Foot-binding was a terrible traditional rules for the Chinese women.It was not only harmful for the health of women,but also for the equality of gender at that time.In fact,foot-binding had existed for a long time in Chinese history.
However,women have different perspectives on foot-binding.Someone disliked this kind of custom.However,there were few women who had the power to fight against the foot-binding.In reality,many Chinese women could admit foot-binding.Many women treated the foot-binding as art(KO,144-160).For this reason,many women chose to admire and advertise the foot-binding.For this reason,the foot-binding had developed great at that time.Why did women reinforce the foot-binding at that time?
Traditional feudal moral restrictions on women's roles,especially the eon-confucianism,put forward the"human"save them,and,the wifely submission and virtue,ethics laws to peak and to limit their scope of activities,which can bind in women,enhance the consciousness of the sexes,prevent women's presence(KO,144-148).
And for women,whether or not the foot binding has become the criterion for a good marriage,the traditional mother is also bound to her daughter when she is very young.
As for the opposition to foot-binding,ancient times already existed,but because it has become a stubborn disease of society,it is hard to eradicate it until the late qing dynasty and the early republic of China.
In the late Qing dynasty,it was the taiping heavenly kingdom and the church activities.Hong xiuquan came under the influence of Christian thought,promote the world men and women are brothers and sisters,there should be no gender discrimination,the idea is put sufficient policy constitutes the taiping heavenly kingdom,has become the ideological basis of many other women liberation measures.
Really start to not foot-binding movement after the sine-japanese war,people feel deeply or crisis,thought of saving the nation from subjugation,will power is strong,to abolish foot-binding as a starting point,and women learn to improve women's knowledge level.In this way,women started to resist the foot-binding.Meanwhile,it is the present for women to resist the traditional gender discrimination.
In the modern era,the status of Chinese women have improved a lot.However,there are some new issues that the Chinese women would face.
First,they may meet the institutionalized gender norms.The physical,psychological and social differences between men and women ultimately lead to the conclusion of gender bias between men and women,and the conclusion of gender inequality based on gender bias(None,2-17).Gender inequality as a plausible theory,all of these eventually led to the discrimination of the idea of this kind of mistake into grandiose ideology.With the aid of the ideology,gender discrimination of of course is established,and further penetration in the social system and the real life,gender bias,discrimination and gender inequality by rationalization,and therefore the legitimacy of cloak.
Sexist often from faitaccompli,namely from the current men,tying the different of the family division of labor,tries to prove the rationality of the gender discrimination,thus leading to the harm of female gender discrimination is more serious,more damaging.In today's age,recruitment,recruitment,job hunting and job transfer have become a kind of personal lifestyle and life state,and also a common social phenomenon.But in the formal recruitment scene,many positions are clearly marked:only men,not women.There are many stereotypes in the Chinese society,for example,many people believe that man is better than women in math subject.In fact,this is a kind of prejudice in gender.
In the process of college graduates'graduation,almost all women are subjected to this kind of outrageous and frustrating female sexism.In practice,many important jobs are mostly in the hands of men,the male monopoly senior positions of the phenomenon has become a very common,very natural phenomenon,so that the mentioned various senior positions,it is direct response are regarded as men's work.Public media at all levels in our country,the National People's Congress,the CPPCC national committee and other senior staff list,if is a man,a first-name basis,but if women,will indicate its for women,it is a tradition for many years and habit.In addition,many units,even if they are willing to admit female employees,will make a lot of demanding demands,such as:no marriage and children in a certain number of years.There is also a lot of sexism in the workplace,such as equal pay for men and women,and significantly fewer women than men in promotions and space(None,2-17).Sexism also exists in marriage.For men,marriage is a part of him,and for women,marriage is all she has,and that plays a role in the existence of sexism.Married men can still have their own career,friends,he may even think marriage which limits the development of his freedom had prevented him from,but for women,marriage is himself is the only life fulcrum.The task of a woman after marriage is to run a family,and more to see her husband.If a woman get married is still a successful career in business,the success will scare away the man,so the women want to firmly safeguard her own husband,should be on their own,rather than a career,it is destined to the tragic ending of the women in the marriage.
The second challenge is the revitalization of ritualism.In the modern society,many women have the better understanding of equality of gender.However,there is the feminine virtues controversy(None,2-17).This kind of organization would spread the traditional value of gender.They support that women should obey the men in every aspect.For example,Jin Xing is a popular woman in China,but she encouraged her fans to stick to traditional theories of gender(None,2-17).
The last one is the fight for gender equality in the society.There is a long way for Chinese women to fight for gender equality,because there are many factors which can hinder them to pursue the gender equality.